Yes and no.
Sync and submit are the only commands that support the Progress API as far as I know.
However, most p4 commands return their output one file at a time, even if they don't use the progress API, so if you're handling the output programmatically you can take advantage of that to build in the concept of progress tracking.
If you're willing to delve into the guts of the C++ client library implementation and make custom modifications to it, you could do some pretty fine-grained progress tracking for a command like "p4 diff -sd" (which might do a lot of work in between lines of output) by adding logic to the clientCheckFile function. Run "p4 -vrpc=3 diff -sd" to get an idea of how this function works -- it's invoked for each file but it only prints output (via a server response) if the file is missing, so you could measure progress by the number of clientCheckFiles that have happened relative to the number of files in the client.